Inside Tiny Tubes, Water Freezes At Boiling Temperature

MIT researchers discover astonishing behavior of water confined in carbon nanotubes.

mit-nanotube-ice-wire_0
A team at MIT has found an unexpected discovery about water: Inside the tiniest of spaces — in carbon nanotubes whose inner dimensions are not much bigger than a few water molecules — water can freeze solid even at high temperatures that would normally set it boiling. The finding might lead to new applications such as ice-filled wires. Courtesy of the researchers
Do you think water freezes at boiling temperature?  New research from MIT demonstrates this can occur.

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Single Ions Impact a Million Water Molecules

The structure of water is much more susceptible to the impact of ions than previously thought

(reprinted from phys.org)
Single ions impact a million water molecules
A single ion has an influence on millions of water molecules, i.e. 10,000 times more than previously thought. Credit: LPB/EPFL

Researchers from École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (“EPFL”) have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought.

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Water’s Ferroelectricity Demonstrated As Physicists ‘Dissolve’ Water in an Emerald

Scientists detect ferroelectric properties of water molecules by placing them into a network of nanocavities in a crystal

 

Ferroecelctricty is Water

Scientists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and several research teams working in Russia and other European countries have been the first to reliably realize and document the phenomenon of ferroelectricity in water by confining water molecules within nano-cages in a beryl crystal. The results of their work are published in Nature Communications.

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Scientific Experiments Demonstrate The Existence of Structured Water

Structured Water Is a Naturally Occurring Phenomenon

waterisenergyDr. Gerald Pollack, in his book “The Fourth Phase of Water”, lays out a number of scientific experiments he and others have performed demonstrating the existence of an area called the “Exclusion Zone” in a vessel of water.  The Exclusion Zone, which Dr. Pollack describes as “EZ” water or Exclusion Water, is an area of highly structured water which occurs naturally in such commonplace situations around the edge a glass of water.  As demonstrated, any “hydrophilic”,  or water-loving,  surface will initiate the process of water structuring.

The specific charge of the surface initiating the structuring process does not matter; the process of water structuring can begin with either a positively or negatively charged surface.

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Confusion Over Whether Water Contains Calories Masks Its Important Energetic Role in Human Physiology

Inconsistencies in the Thermodynamic and Physiological Definition of Calories Perpetuates the Confusion

hexagonalwater50Confusion about whether water contains calories has led to a masking of the vital role water plays in the human body’s energetic system.  Students of structured water know that since a calorie is a unit of energy, and structured water contains lots of energy, structured water contains lots of calories, right?

Well, not so fast.

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